domingo, 17 de julio de 2016

3. Grammar

Present perfect (I have done)
FORM : have (’ve) / has (’s) + past participle: I’ve decided, etc.
USE : The present perfect shows a relationship between past time and present time. It is about something that started in the past and is still going on or has just finished.
He’s taught English in five different countries.
Have you been round the National Gallery?
I’ve been to Spain but I haven’t been to Italy.
B With adverbials.
Used with adverbials that show a connection between the past and the present, e.g. so far, up to now, lately, already, yet, just:
She’s already done her homework.
I’ve seen Jane a lot lately.
These letters have iust arrived.
She is the most honest person I’ve ever met.

1.      You are writing a letter to a friend. In the letter you give news about yourself and other people.
Dear Chris,
  Lots of things have happened since I last wrote to you.
  1. I/buy/a new car   I've bought a new car.
  2. my father/start/a new job
  3. I/give up/smoking
  4. Charles and Sarah/go/to Brazil
  5. Suzanne/have/a baby

1.      Read the situations and write sentences. Choose one of the following:
arrive               break             go up                grow              improve          lose

  1. Mike is looking for his key. He can't find it. He has lost his key.
  2. Margaret can't walk and her leg is in plaster. She ______________
  3. Maria's English wasn't very good. Now it is much better. ______________
  4. Tim didn't have a beard last month. Now he has a beard. ______________
  5. This morning I was expecting a letter. Now I have it. ______________
  6. Last week the bus fare was 80 pence. Now it is 90. ______________

3.  Complete Bs sentences. Use the verb in brackets + just/already/yet
  1. A: Would you like something to eat?
  B: No, thanks. I've just had lunch. (just/have)
  2. A: Do you know where Julia is?
  B: Yes, I ______________ her. (just/see)
  3. A: What time is David leaving?
  B: He ______________ (already/leave)
  4. A: What's in the newspaper today?
  B: I don't know. I ______________ (not/read/yet). I ____________ (play) all morning.

  5. A: Is Ann coming to the cinema with us?
  B: No, she ______________ the film. (already/see)
  6. A: Are your friends here yet?
  B: Yes, they ______________ (just/arrive)
  7. A: What does Tim think about your plan?
  B: I ______________ (not/tell/yet)

 Present perfect continuous (I have been doing)
A To refer to an activity which has been taking place in the recent period up to the present.
‘You look tired. What have you been doing?’
‘I’ve been playing football.’
A With no time reference:
I’ve been reading that book.
(Describes the activity. The book is not finished.)
I’ve read that book.
(Describes the completion of an event. The book is finished.)

1. Put the verb into the present continuous (I am ~ing etc.) or present perfect continuous (I have been ~ing etc.).
  1. Maria has been learning (learn) English for two years.
  2. Hello, Tom. I ______________ (look) for you all morning. Where have you been?
  3. Why ______________ (you/look) at me like that? Stop it!
  4. We always go to Ireland for our holidays. We ______________ (go) there for years.
  5. I ______________ (think) about what you said and I've decided to take your advice.
  6. 'Is Ann on holiday this week?' 'No, she ______________ (work).'
  7. Sarah is very tired. She ______________ (work) very hard recently.

2.  Read the situations and write questions from the words in brackets.
  1. John tells you that his mother is in hospital. You ask him:
  (how long/be/in hospital?)
  How long has your mother been in hospital?
  2. You meet a woman who tells you that she teaches English. You ask her:
  (how long/teach/English?)
  3. You know that Jane is a good friend of Carol's. You ask Jane:
  (how long/know/Carol?)
  4. Your friend's brother went to Australia some time ago and he's still there. You ask your friend:
  (how long/be/in Australia?)
  5. Tim always wears the same jacket. It's a very old jacket. You ask him:
  (how long/have/that jacket?)
  6. You are talking to a friend about Alan. Alan now works at the airport. You ask your friend:
  (how long/work/at the airport?)
  7. A friend of yours is having driving lessons. You ask him:
  (how long/have/driving lessons?)
  8. You meet somebody on a train. She tells you that she lives in Glasgow. You ask her:
  (always/live/in Glasgow?)

3. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form, present perfect or past simple.
  1. 'Where's your key?' 'I don't know. I've lost it.' (lose)
  2. I was very tired, so I lay down on the bed and went to sleep. (be)
  3. Mary _____________ to Australia for a while but she's back again now. (go)
  4. 'Where's Ken?' 'He ____________ out. He'll be back in about an hour.' (go)
  5. I did German at school but I ______________ most of it. (forget)
  6. I meant to phone Diane last night but I ______________ (forget)
  7. I ______________ a headache earlier but I feel fine now. (have)
  8. Look! There's an ambulance over there. There ______________ an accident. (be)
  9. They're still building the new road. They ______________ it. (not/finish)
  10. 'Is Helen still here?' 'No, she ______________ out.' (just/go)
  11. The police _____________ three people but later they let them go. (arrest)
  12. Ann __________ me her address but I'm afraid I _________ it. (give, lose)
  13. Where's my bike? It ______________ outside the house. It ______________ (be, disappear)
  14. What do you think of my English? Do you think I __________? (improve)
4. Write sentences about yourself using the ideas in brackets.
  1. (something you haven't done today)   I haven't eaten any fruit today.
  2. (something you haven't done today)
  3. (something you didn't do yesterday)
  4. (something you did yesterday evening)
  5. (something you haven't done recently)
  6. (something you've done a lot recently)

Past perfect (I had done)

  1 Read the situations and write sentences from the words in brackets.
  1. You went to Jill's house but she wasn't there. (she/go/out) She had gone out.
  2. You went back to your home town after many years. It wasn't the same as before.
  (it/change/a lot)
  3. I invited Rachel to the party but she couldn't come.
  (she/arrange/to do something else)
  4. You went to the cinema last night. You arrived at the cinema late.
  (the film/already/begin)
  5. I was very pleased to see tim again after such a long time.
  (I/not/see/him for five years)
  6. I offered Sue something to eat but she wasn't hungry.
2 Read the situations and write sentences ending with before. Use the verb given in brackets.
  1. The man sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. It was his first flight.
  (fly) He had never flown before. OR He hadn't flown before.
  2. A woman walked into the room. She was a complete stranger to me.
  (see) I ______________ before.
  3. Simon played tennis yesterday. He wasn't very good at it because it was his first game.
  (play) He ______________
  4. Last year we went to Denmark. It was our first time there (be) We ______________

3 Put the verb into the correct form, past perfect (I had done etc.) or past simple (I did etc.).
  1. 'Was Tom at the party when you arrived?' 'No, he had gone (go) home.'
  2. I felt very tired when I got home, so I ______________ (go) straight to bed.
  3. The house was very quiet when I got home. Everybody ______________ (go) to bed.
  4. Sorry I'm late. The car ______________ (break) down on my way here.
  5. We were driving along the road when we ______________ (see) a car which. 
  ______________ (break) down, so we ______________ (stop) to see if we could help.

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