domingo, 17 de julio de 2016

3. Grammar

The passive

  We use an active verb to say what the subject does:
  My grandfather was a builder. He built this house in 1930.

We use a passive verb to say what happens to the subject:
This house is quite old. It was built in 1930.
Two hundred people are employed by the company.

 The passive is be (is/was/have been etc.) + the past participle
1.       Complete the sentences using one of these verbs in the correct form:
  cause  damage  hold  include  invite  make  overtake  show  translate  write
  1. Many accidents _are caused_ by dangerous driving.
  2. Cheese ____________ from milk.
  3. The roof of the building ____________ in a storm a few days ago.
  4. There's no need to leave a tip. Service ____________ in the bill.
  5. You ____________ to the wedding. Why didn't you go?
  6. A cinema is a place where films ____________
  7. In the United States, elections for President ____________ every four years.
  8. Originally the book ____________ in Spanish and a few years ago it
  9. We were driving along quite fast but we ____________ by lots of other cars.

2.  Put the verb into the correct form
1. It's a big factory. Five hundred people _are employed_ (employ) there.
2. Water ____________ (cover) most of the Earth's surface.
3. Most of the Earth's surface ____________ (cover) by water.
4. The park gates ____________ (lock) at 6.30 p.m. every evening.
5. The letter ____________ (post) a week ago and it ____________ (arrive) yesterday.
6. The boat ____________ (sink) quickly but fortunately everybody ______________ (rescue).
7. Ron's parents ____________ (die) when he was very young. He and his sister ____________ (bring) up by their grandparents.
8.  While I was on holiday, my camera ____________ (steal) from my hotel room.
9. Why ____________ (Sue/resign) from her job? Didn't she enjoy it?
10. Why ____________ (Bill/sack) from his job? What did he do wrong?
  3.  Rewrite these sentences. Instead of using 'somebody/they/people' etc. write a passive sentence.
  1. Somebody cleans the room every day. _The room is cleaned every day._
  2. They cancelled all flights because of fog. All ---
  3. People don't use this road very often. ---
  4. Somebody accused me of stealing money. I ---
  5. How do people learn languages? How ---
  4. Rewrite these sentences. Instead of using 'somebody' or 'they', write a passive sentence.
  1. Somebody has cleaned the room. _The room has been cleaned._
  2. They have postponed the concert. The ____________
  3. Somebody is using the computer at the moment. The computer ____________
  4. I didn't realise that somebody was recording our conversation. I didn't realise that ____________
  5. When we got to the stadium we found that they had cancelled the game. When we got to the stadium, we found that ____________
  6. They are building a new ring road round the city. ____________
  7. They have built a new hospital near the airport. ____________

Have/Get  something done

  We use have /get something done to say that we arrange for somebody else to do something for us.
 Jill repaired the roof. (= she repaired it herself)
 Jill had the roof repaired. (= she arranged for somebody else to repair it)
  Have/get + object + past participle

Why did you do these things? Answer using 'have something done'. Use one of these verbs:
  clean                          cut       repair              service
  1. Why did you take your car to the garage? _To have it serviced._
  2. Why did you take your jacket to the cleaner's? To ____________
  3. Why did you take your watch to the jeweller's? ____________
  4. Why did you go to the hairdresser? ____________
Write sentences in the way shown.
  1. Jill didn't repair the roof herself. She _had it repaired._
  2. I didn't cut my hair myself. I ____________
  3. They didn't paint the house themselves. They ____________
  4. Sue didn't make the curtains herself. ____________

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