domingo, 17 de julio de 2016

4. Grammar



Relative clauses
 A clause is a part of a sentence. A relative clause tells us which person or thing (or what kind of person or thing) the speaker means:

 The woman who lives next door ... ('who lives next door' tells us which woman)
 People who live in London ... ('who live in London' tells us what kind of people)

  We use who in a relative clause when we are talking about people (not things). We use who instead of he/she/they. You can also use that  or which (instead of who):

The man that lives next door is very friendly.

Whose
  We use whose in relative clauses instead of his/her/their:
  We saw some people [whose] car had broken down.

Type 2

 My brother Jim, _who lives in London_, is a doctor.
 Colin told me about his new job, _which he's enjoying very much._
 We stayed at the Grand Hotel, _which Ann recommended to us._

  In these examples, the relative clauses do not tell you which person or thing the speaker means. We already know which thing or person is meant: 'My brother Jim', 'Colin's new job' and 'the Grand Hotel'. The relative clauses in these sentences give us extra information about the person or thing.
  We use commas (,) in these clauses:
  * My brother Jim, _who lives in London_, is a doctor. (extra information about Jim)
You cannot use that:
  * John, who (not 'that') speaks French and Italian, works as a tourist guide.


1.     Make one sentence from two. Use who/that/which.
  1. A girl was injured in the accident. She is now in hospital.
  _The girl who was injured in the accident is now in. hospital._
  2. A man answered the phone. He told me you were away.
  The man ____________
  3. A waitress served us. She was very impolite and impatient.
  The ____________
  4. A building was destroyed in the fire. It has now been rebuilt.
  ____________
  5. Some people were arrested. They have now been released.
  The ____________
  6. A bus goes to the airport. It runs every half hour.
  ____________

2.     Put in that or what. If the sentence is complete with or without that, write (that)--in brackets.
  1. I gave her all the money _that_ I had.
  2. They give their children everything --- they want.
  3. Tell me --- you want and I'll try to get it for you.
  4. Why do you blame me for everything --- goes wrong?
  5. I won't be able to do much but I'll do the best --- I can.
  6. I can only lend you ten pounds. It's all --- I've got.
  7. I don't agree with --- you've just said.
  8. I don't trust him. I don't believe anything --- he says.


3.     Make one sentence from two. Use the sentence in brackets to make a relative clause (Type 2). Sometimes the clause goes in the middle of the sentence, sometimes at the end. You will need to use whowhose/which/where.
  1. Ann is very friendly. (She lives next door.) _Ann, who lives next door, is very friendly._
  2. We stayed at the Grand Hotel. (Ann recommended it to us.) _We stayed at the Grand Hotel____________
  3. We went to Sandra's party. (We enjoyed it very much.) We went to Sandra's party ____________
  4. 1 went to see the doctor. (He told me to rest for a few days.) ____________
  5. John is one of my closest friends. (I have known him for a very long time.) John ____________
  6. Sheila is away from home a lot. (Her job involves a lot of travelling.) ____________
  7. The new stadium will be opened next month. (It can hold 90,000 people.) The ____________
  8. We often go to visit our friends in Bristol. (It is only 30 miles away.) ____________
  9. Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland. (My brother lives there.) ____________


4.     Read the information and complete the sentences. Use a relative clause. Sometimes the clause tells us which thing or person (Type 1); sometimes it only gives us extra information (Type 2). Use commas where necessary.
  1. There's a woman living next door. She's a doctor.
  The woman _who lives next door is a doctor._
  2. I've got a brother called Jim. He lives in London. He's a doctor.
  My brother Jim, _who lives in London, is a doctor._
  3. There was a strike at the car factory. It lasted ten days. It is now over.
  The strike at the car factory ---.
  4. I was looking for a book this morning. I've found it now.
  I've found ---.
  5. London was once the largest city in the world, but the population is now falling.
  The population of London ---.
  6. A job was advertised. A lot of people applied for it. Few of them had the necessary qualifications. Few of ---.
  7. Margaret has a son. She showed me a photograph of him. He's a policeman.
  Margaret showed me ---.



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